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What Are Truffles and What Are They For?

 
By Eugenia Yordán, Natural resources technician. July 9, 2023
What Are Truffles and What Are They For?

Renowned as one of the most expensive foods in the world, truffles captivate our senses with their unparalleled flavor. However, the allure of truffles extends beyond their exquisite taste; it is their unique growing and harvesting conditions, along with other fascinating aspects, that contribute to their exclusivity. Beyond their aromatic allure and distinct flavor, truffles were revered for their numerous properties and benefits.

In the following article by thedailyECO, we discuss what truffles are and their numerous uses and properties.

What is a truffle?

Truffles, belonging to the genus Tuber, are highly sought-after edible fungi that belong to the ascomycete group of fungi (phylum Ascomycota). These exquisite mushrooms have captured the hearts of many in European gastronomy. They are characterized by their distinct rounded shape, with variations in color ranging from brown to black on the outside, while the inside can be either white or brown. Truffles are predominantly found in regions blessed with Mediterranean climates, such as southern Italy, France, parts of Africa, Asia, and Spain.

These extraordinary fungi thrive underground in close association with trees, particularly oak trees. Despite numerous efforts, cultivating truffles through agricultural methods has proven to be a formidable challenge, leading to their continued reliance on wild collection. Truffle hunting often involves the assistance of trained dogs or pigs, as truffles release molecules similar to the sex pheromones of these animals, enabling them to detect the alluring scent and locate these elusive delicacies.

You might be interested in this other article, where we explain the differences between fungi and mushrooms.

What Are Truffles and What Are They For? - What is a truffle?

Origin of truffles

The origins of truffles trace back to ancient times, with the earliest recorded mention of black truffles as a food dating back to around 1500 BC. Greece and later the Roman Empire are believed to be among the first civilizations to incorporate truffles into their culinary traditions.

However, during the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church deemed truffles as a product of the devil. This perception arose due to the aphrodisiac properties associated with truffles and their underground growth, which was seen as being "near hell." Consequently, truffles were prohibited during this period.

It wasn't until the Renaissance, around the 1500s, that truffles made a resurgence. However, their consumption remained limited to the tables of the wealthy, as they became a symbol of social status. This association with prestige and exclusivity continues to persist in the present day, further enhancing the allure and desirability of truffles in the culinary world.

Types of truffles

Truffles encompass a diverse range of species, with over 70 known varieties worldwide, and approximately 30 found in Europe alone. However, only a select few are utilized in cooking. Each truffle species possesses its own distinct appearance and flavor profile, influenced by factors such as variety, seasonal availability, habitat, and the specific tree species it associates with.

Let's delve into the characteristics of two prominent types of truffles:

  • Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum): Also known as the Perigord black truffle, it is hailed as the "black diamond" of the culinary world and commands a high price. With its rough black exterior, it emanates a penetrating aroma and boasts an intense, slightly bitter flavor. The most favorable tree species for its growth include oaks, hazelnuts, and enzymes.

  • White truffle (Tuber magnatum): Contrary to its name, the white truffle exhibits a light ocher color, sometimes with hints of olive-gray. Its texture appears smooth to the eye but reveals a grainy surface under close inspection. It releases an aroma that can be described as a blend of methane gas, fermented cheese, and garlic, yet its flavor is intense and highly enjoyable. The white truffle is often associated with broad-leaved trees such as oaks, enzymes, limes, and hazelnuts.

We recommend reading our other article that delves into the topic of fungi and provides a detailed explanation of their structure.

Truffle properties

Truffles are consumed not only for their delicious flavor but also for the properties and benefits they offer. Here are some noteworthy points:

  • Powerful antioxidant: truffles possess antioxidant properties, which help combat free radicals in the body.

  • Anti-inflammatory properties: due to the presence of compounds like polyphenols and phytosterols, truffles exhibit anti-inflammatory effects.

  • Healing properties: while scientific evidence is lacking, truffles have been traditionally used to treat conditions such as gout and as an antibiotic.

  • Aphrodisiac properties: truffles are believed to have aphrodisiac effects, although scientific confirmation is limited.

  • Rich in minerals: truffles are a great source of essential minerals like potassium, phosphorus, iodine, selenium, iron, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.

  • Rich in vitamins: truffles contain significant amounts of vitamins, particularly vitamin C and B vitamins.

  • High-quality proteins: Truffles provide nine essential amino acids that are vital for the body, as they cannot be synthesized internally.

Moreover, truffles are low in calories since they primarily consist of water, with around 90 calories per 100 grams. This, combined with their satiating effect, makes them suitable for weight-loss diets.

Uses of truffles

Truffles serve a significant purpose in gastronomy, typically used in small quantities. The ideal consumption is fresh, but if cooking is necessary, it is advised not to exceed 3 minutes to preserve their characteristic aroma and flavor.

Truffles are incredibly versatile and are commonly used as accompaniments and in a wide range of dishes. Their strong aroma makes them particularly suitable for preparing sauces and stews. Typically, they are added as thin slices or grated on top of dishes just before serving.

It's worth noting that in French cuisine, there is a general rule of not combining truffles with ingredients that may overpower or mask their natural flavor, such as garlic, fried tomato, or strong spices. This allows the unique taste of truffles to shine through in the culinary experience.

What Are Truffles and What Are They For? - Uses of truffles

Why are truffles so expensive?

Truffles are renowned for their steep prices in the market, although the specific cost can vary based on the quality and type of truffle. The black truffle, often referred to as the "black diamond" of gastronomy, is considered the most exquisite, sought-after, and expensive mushroom in the world.

The price of truffles is influenced by factors such as market supply and demand, as well as the method of acquisition, whether directly from a producer or ordered in a restaurant. In certain French restaurants, for instance, 100 grams of fresh black truffle can reach up to 350 euros.

Several reasons contribute to the high price tag associated with truffles:

  • Scarcity: Truffles are rare and difficult to cultivate, making them relatively scarce in the market.

  • Growing conditions: Truffles require specific and often challenging growing conditions, such as specific soil types, climate, and tree associations, which further contribute to their limited availability.

  • Artisanal harvest: Truffles are meticulously harvested by hand, as their delicate nature and unique underground growth pattern necessitate careful extraction.

  • High demand: The desirability of truffles in culinary circles, combined with their limited supply, leads to significant demand and drives up prices.

  • Time to grow: Truffles have a slow growth process, taking several years to reach maturity. This extended cultivation time adds to their exclusivity and value.

  • Unique flavor and aroma: The unmistakable and highly prized flavor and aroma of truffles contribute to their allure, making them a sought-after ingredient in gourmet cuisine.

These factors collectively contribute to the high price point associated with truffles, reflecting their exceptional qualities and the labor-intensive processes involved in their production and acquisition.

If you want to read similar articles to What Are Truffles and What Are They For?, we recommend you visit our Facts about nature category.

Bibliography
  • Why are black truffles so expensive? . Available at: https://www.lanacion.com.ar/sociedad/por-que-son-tan-caras-las-trufas-negras-nid1878866/
  • Mycological sheets . Available at: https://www.fichasmicologicas.com/
  • Truffles, characteristics and nutritional properties . Available at: https://www.ecoagricultor.com/trufas-caracteristicas-propiedades-nutricionales/

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